Magnetic force is one of four fundamental forces in the world. (In case you were wondering, gravity, strong atomic forces, and weak atomic forces are the other three). And magnetic fields are the forces of electrical currents and magnetic materials acting in a certain manner. Each magnet has opposing magnetic fields. These fields are polar, meaning that they have two different ends which repel each other. We call these ends North and South. (And yes, the directions North and South do relate to the Earth’s magnetic force).

Water softening is the process of removing calcium, magnesium, and other unwanted chemical and/or contaminant ions from hard water. By softening hard water, it is made more compatible with soaps; the process can also help extend the working life of plumbing by preventing the buildup of lime scale and reducing galvanic corrosion.

This is a simple, and really fun experiment that I did when I was in school. With the advent of digital, I would guess a lot of people hardly know what a film camera is, let alone how it works. But in this article, we’ll go over, briefly how film works and how to make your very own camera.